Vitamin C: Vitamin C is a vitamin that people must get from food and other sources. Good sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits.
Historically, vitamin C was used for preventing and treating scurvy. These days, vitamin C is used most often for preventing and treating the common cold. Some people use it for other infections including gum disease, acne and other skin infections, bronchitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, stomach ulcers caused by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori, tuberculosis, dysentery (an infection of the lower intestine), and skin infections that produce boils (furunculosis). It is also used for infections of the bladder and prostate.
Some people use vitamin C for depression, thinking problems, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, physical and mental stress, fatigue, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Other uses include increasing the absorption of iron from foods and correcting a protein imbalance in certain newborns (tyrosinemia).
There is some thought that vitamin C might help the heart and blood vessels. It is used for hardening of the arteries, preventing clots in veins and arteries, heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.
Vitamin C is also used for glaucoma, preventing cataracts, preventing gallbladder disease, dental cavities (caries), constipation, Lyme disease, boosting the immune system, heat stroke, hay fever, asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, infertility, diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), autism, collagen disorders, arthritis and bursitis, back pain and disc swelling, cancer, and osteoporosis.
Additional uses include improving physical endurance and slowing aging, as well as counteracting the side effects of cortisone and related drugs, and aiding drug withdrawal in addiction.
Vitamin E: Vitamin E is a vitamin that dissolves in fat. It is found in many foods including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and wheat germ oil. It is also available as a supplement. Vitamin E is an important vitamin required for the proper function of many organs in the body. It is also an antioxidant. This means it helps to slow down processes that damage cells.
Some people use vitamin E for treating and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels including hardening of the arteries, heart attack, chest pain, leg pain due to blocked arteries, and high blood pressure.
Vitamin E is also used for treating diabetes and its complications. It is used for preventing cancer, particularly lung and oral cancer in smokers; colorectal cancer and polyps; and gastric, prostate, and pancreatic cancer.
Some people use vitamin E for diseases of the brain and nervous system including Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, night cramps, restless leg syndrome, and for epilepsy, along with other medications. Vitamin E is also used for Huntington's chorea, and other disorders involving nerves and muscles.
Sometimes vitamin E is used to lessen the harmful effects of medical treatments such as dialysis and radiation. It is also used to reduce unwanted side effects of drugs such as hair loss in people taking doxorubicin and lung damage in people taking amiodarone.
Vitamin E is sometimes used for improving physical endurance, increasing energy, reducing muscle damage after exercise, and improving muscle strength.
Vitamin E is also used for cataracts, asthma, respiratory infections, skin disorders, aging skin, sunburns, cystic fibrosis, infertility, impotence, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), peptic ulcers, for certain inherited diseases and to prevent allergies.
The American Heart Association recommends obtaining antioxidants, including vitamin E, by eating a well-balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rather than from supplements until more is known about the risks and benefits of taking supplements.
Vitamin B-6: The active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) (depicted) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters.
Pyridoxine is also used for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome, autism, diabetes and related nerve pain, sickle cell anemia, migraine headaches, asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, night leg cramps, muscle cramps, arthritis, allergies, acne and various other skin conditions, and infertility. It is also used for dizziness, motion sickness, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), seizures, convulsions due to fever, and movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia, hyperkinesias, chorea), as well as for increasing appetite and helping people remember dreams.
Some people use pyridoxine for boosting the immune system, eye infections, bladder infections, and preventing cancer and kidney stones.
Vitamin B-12: Vitamin B12 is involved in the cellular metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. It is essential in the production of blood cells in bone marrow, and for nerve sheaths and proteins. Vitamin B12 functions as a co-enzyme in intermediary metabolism for the methionine synthase reaction with methylcobalamin, and the methylmalonyl CoA mutase reaction with adenosylcobalamin.
Vitamin B12 is also used for memory loss; Alzheimer’s disease; boosting mood, energy, concentration and the immune system; and slowing aging. It is also used for heart disease, lowering high homocysteine levels (which may contribute to heart disease), male infertility, diabetes, sleep disorders, depression, mental disorders, weak bones (osteoporosis), swollen tendons, AIDS, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergies, a skin disease called vitiligo, preventing cervical and other cancers, and skin infections.
Some people use vitamin B12 for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), multiple sclerosis, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Lyme disease and gum disease. It is also used for ringing in the ears, bleeding, liver and kidney disease, and for protection against the poisons and allergens in tobacco smoke.
Vitamin B12 is applied to the skin either alone or in combination with avocado oil for psoriasis and eczema.
Zinc: Zinc is a metal. It is called an “essential trace element” because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health.
Zinc is needed for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body. It is found in several systems and biological reactions, and it is needed for immune function, wound healing, blood clotting, thyroid function, and much more. Meats, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains offer relatively high levels of zinc.
Zinc deficiency is not uncommon worldwide, but is
rare in the
Zinc plays a key role in maintaining vision, and it is present in high concentrations in the eye. Zinc deficiency can alter vision, and severe deficiency can cause changes in the retina (the back of the eye where an image is focused).
Zinc might also have effects against viruses. It appears to lessen symptoms of the rhinovirus (common cold), but researchers can’t yet explain exactly how this works. In addition, there is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus.
Low zinc levels can be associated with male infertility, sickle cell disease, HIV, major depression, and type 2 diabetes, and can be fought by taking a zinc supplement.
Selenium: Selenium is a mineral found in the soil. Selenium naturally appears in water and some foods. While people only need a very small amount, selenium plays a key role in the metabolism.
Selenium has attracted attention because of its antioxidant properties. Antioxidants protect cells from damage. Evidence that selenium supplements may reduce the odds of prostate cancer has been mixed, but most studies suggest there is no real benefit. Selenium does not seem to affect the risk of colorectal or lung cancer. But beware: selenium also seems to increase the risk of non- melanoma skin cancer.
Among healthy people in the
Copper: Copper is a mineral. It is found in many foods, particularly in organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, wheat bran cereals, grain products, and cocoa products. The body stores copper mostly in the bones and muscles. The liver regulates the amount of copper that is in the blood. Copper is used as medicine.
Copper is used for treating copper deficiency and the anemia it may cause. Having too little copper (copper deficiency) is rare. It sometimes occurs in people who get too much zinc from diet or supplements, have intestinal bypass surgery, or are fed by feeding tubes. Malnourished infants can also have copper deficiency.
Copper is also used for improving wound healing, and treating osteoarthritis and brittle bones (osteoporosis).
Researchers think that saw palmetto may affect the level of testosterone in the body, and perhaps reduce the amount of an enzyme that promotes the growth of prostate cells. Saw palmetto also seems to have an anti-inflammatory effect on the prostate. At least one study has shown even greater anti-inflammatory activity when saw palmetto is combined with Lycopene and selenium.
Several studies suggest that the herb is effective for treating symptoms, including too frequent urination, having trouble starting or maintaining urination, and needing to urinate during the night.
Some studies show that saw palmetto is as effective in treating symptoms as finasteride (Proscar) without side effects, such as loss of libido.
Pumpkin Seed Powder:
Pumpkin seed oil has an intense nutty taste and is rich in
polyunsaturated fatty acids. Browned oil has a bitter taste. Pumpkin
seed oil serves as a salad dressing when combined with honey or olive
oil. The typical Styrian dressing consists of pumpkin seed oil and
cider vinegar. The oil is also used for desserts, giving ordinary
vanilla ice cream a nutty taste. It is considered a real delicacy in
Pumpkin seed oil has been used in combination with saw palmetto in two double blind human studies to effectively reduce symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Researchers have suggested that the zinc, free fatty acid, or plant sterol content of pumpkin seeds might account for their benefit in men with BPH. Studies have shown that pumpkin seed extracts can improve the function of the bladder and urethra, this might partially account for BPH symptom relief.
There are claims from natural medicine and phytotherapy of usefulness of the oil in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Stinging Nettle Root Extract:
Stinging nettle root is used widely in
Pygeum Bark extract: Pygeum or African plum extract (Pygeum africanum) Pygeum has been used historically for urinary problems. In several scientific studies, Pygeum relieved BPH symptoms including nocturia (increased urination at night) and improved urine flow. Also NBBS is one of the active compounds of Pygeum africanum bark and may serve as a naturally occurring, novel therapeutic agent for treatment of prostatic diseases.
Turmeric Root Extract: Turmeric is a plant. You probably know turmeric as the main spice in curry. It has a warm, bitter taste and is frequently used to flavor or color curry powders, mustards, butters, and cheeses. But the root of turmeric is also used widely to make medicine.
Turmeric is used for arthritis, heartburn (dyspepsia), stomach pain, diarrhea, intestinal gas, stomach bloating, loss of appetite, jaundice, liver problems and gallbladder disorders.
It is also used for headaches, bronchitis, colds, lung infections, fibromyalgia, leprosy, fever, menstrual problems, and cancer. Other uses include depression, Alzheimer’s disease, water retention, worms, and kidney problems.
Some people apply turmeric to the skin for pain, ringworm, bruising, leech bites, eye infections, inflammatory skin conditions, soreness inside of the mouth, and infected wounds.
The chemicals in turmeric might decrease swelling (inflammation).
Plant Phytosterlos: Beta-sitosterol appears to affect the activity of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn may inhibit the production of dihydrotestosterone, which in turn helps promote proper prostate size and urinary tract health.
Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid). It is found in many plants
and foods, such as red wine, onions, green tea, apples, berries,
Quercetin is used for treating conditions of the heart and blood vessels including “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), high cholesterol, heart disease, and circulation problems and for treating chronic infections of the prostate.
Quercetin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which might help reduce prostate inflammation.
Juniper is used for digestion problems including upset stomach, intestinal gas (flatulence), heartburn, bloating, and loss of appetite, as well as gastrointestinal (GI) infections and intestinal worms. It is also used for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and kidney and bladder stones. Other uses include treating snakebite, diabetes, and cancer.
Juniper berries contain chemicals that might decrease inflammation and gas. It might also be effective in fighting bacteria and viruses. Juniper might also increase the need to urinate.
Uva Ursi Leaf Powder: Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi), also known as bearberry (because bears like eating the fruit), has been used medicinally since the 2nd century. Native Americans used it as a remedy for urinary tract infections. In fact, until the discovery of sulfa drugs and antibiotics, Uva Ursi was a common treatment for bladder-related infections. Through modern day scientific research in test tubes and animals, researchers have discovered that Uva ursi's ability to fight infection are due to several chemicals, including arbutin and hydroquinone. The herb also contains tannins that have astringent effects, helping to shrink and tighten mucous membranes in the body. In turn, that helps reduce inflammation and fight infection.
Today, Uva Ursi is sometimes used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) and cystitis (bladder inflammation). One preliminary study found that Uva Ursi, when combined with dandelion root and leaf, helped prevent recurrent UTIs. But Uva Ursi can be toxic. Hydroquinone, a component of Uva Ursi, can cause serious liver damage. Conventional medications that have fewer risks are available to treat urinary tract infections.
Parsely Leaf Powder: Parsley is an herb. The leaf, seed, and root are used to make medicine.
Parsley is used for urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney stones (nephrolithiasis), gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, constipation, jaundice, intestinal gas (flatulence), indigestion, colic, diabetes, cough, asthma, fluid retention (edema), osteoarthritis, “tired blood” (anemia), high blood pressure, prostate conditions, and spleen conditions. It is also used to start menstrual flow, to cause an abortion, as an aphrodisiac, and as a breath freshener.
Parsley might help stimulate the appetite, improve digestion, increase urine production, reduce spasms, and increase menstrual flow.
Buchu Leaf Powder: Buchu is a plant. The leaf is used to make medicine.
Buchu is used to disinfect the urinary tract during infections of the bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis), prostate (prostatitis), or kidney (pyelonephritis). It is also used to treat sexually transmitted diseases.
It is thought that the active chemicals in Buchu may kill germs and also promote urine flow.
Burdock Root Powder: Burdock has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Traditionally, it has been used as a:
"Blood purifier" to clear the bloodstream of toxins
Diuretic to help eliminate excess water by increasing urine output
Topical remedy for skin problems such as eczema, acne, and psoriasis
Medicinal uses of burdock have also been reported, in treating chronic diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and AIDS.
Extracts of burdock root are found in a variety of herbal preparations, as well as homeopathic remedies. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), burdock is often used with other herbs for sore throat and colds.
Pomegranate Fruit Extract: Pomegranate is a tree. Various parts of the tree and fruit are used to make medicine.
Pomegranate is used for conditions of the heart and blood vessels, including high blood pressure, congestive heart failure (CHF), heart attack, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), and high cholesterol. It is also used for conditions of the digestive tract, including diarrhea, dysentery, and tapeworm and other intestinal parasites.
Some people use pomegranate for flu, swelling of the lining of the mouth (stomatitis), gum disease, erectile dysfunction (ED), diabetes and a complication called acidosis, bleeding, and HIV disease. It is also used for preventing prostate cancer, obesity, and weight loss. Some women use pomegranate to cause an abortion.
Pomegranate contains a variety of chemicals that might have antioxidant effects. Some preliminary research suggests that chemicals in pomegranate juice might slow the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and possibly fight cancer cells. But it is not known if pomegranate has these effects when people drink the juice.
Lipase Complex: A lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids). Lipases are a subclass of the esterases.
Lipases perform essential roles in the digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides, fats, oils) in most, if not all, living organisms. Genes encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses.
Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of a lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3)(small intestine). For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids.
Lycopene is a naturally occurring chemical that gives fruits and
vegetables a red color. It is one of a number of pigments called
carotenoids. Lycopene is found in watermelons, pink grapefruits,
apricots, and pink guavas. It is found in particularly high amounts in
tomatoes and tomato products. In
People take Lycopene for preventing heart disease, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis); and cancer of the prostate, breast, lung, bladder, ovaries, colon, and pancreas. Lycopene is also used for treating human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which is a major cause of uterine cancer. Some people also use Lycopene for cataracts and asthma.
Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that may help protect cells from damage. This is why there is a lot of research interest in Lycopene role, if any, in preventing cancer.
L-Glutamic Acid: Glutamic acid is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an a-amino group (which is in the protonated -+NH3 form under biological conditions), an a-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO- form under biological conditions), and a side chain carboxylic acid, classifying it as a polar negatively charged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it.
In neuroscience, its carboxylate anion glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter that plays the principal role in neural activation.
L-Alanine: Alpha-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid. Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
Alpha-Alanine is used for low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), diarrhea-related dehydration, liver disease, enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy, BPH), fatigue, stress, and certain inherited disorders including glycogen storage disease and urea cycle disorders.
Alpha-Alanine is an amino acid. It can affect blood sugar levels.
Glycine: Glycine is an amino acid, a building block for protein. It is not considered an “essential amino acid” because the body can make it from other chemicals. A typical diet contains about 2 grams of Glycine daily. The primary sources are protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes.
Glycine is used for treating schizophrenia, stroke, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and some rare inherited metabolic disorders. It is also used to protect kidneys from the harmful side effects of certain drugs used after organ transplantation as well as the liver from harmful effects of alcohol. Other uses include cancer prevention and memory enhancement.
The body uses Glycine to make proteins. Glycine is also involved in the transmission of chemical signals in the brain, so there is interest in trying it for schizophrenia and improving memory. Some researchers think Glycine may have a role in cancer prevention because it seems to interfere with the blood supply needed by certain tumors.